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ACA Health Insurance: Understanding FPL Numbers and Their Impact

Updated: Jun 13

In the realm of healthcare in the United States, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has been a transformative force, aiming to provide accessible and affordable health insurance coverage to millions of Americans. Central to the ACA's framework is the concept of Federal Poverty Level (FPL) numbers, which play a crucial role in determining eligibility for various subsidies and assistance programs. Let’s delve into what ACA health insurance entails, the significance of FPL numbers, and how they impact individuals seeking coverage.


Understanding ACA Health Insurance

The ACA, enacted in 2010, introduced significant reforms to the U.S. healthcare system. Among its key provisions was the establishment of health insurance marketplaces, where individuals and families could shop for coverage. These marketplaces offer a range of plans with varying levels of coverage and cost, making it easier for consumers to find a suitable option for their needs.


The ACA also expanded Medicaid eligibility in participating states, providing coverage to low-income individuals and families who previously might not have qualified. Additionally, the law introduced subsidies to help lower the cost of premiums and out-of-pocket expenses for those purchasing insurance through the marketplace.


Federal Poverty Level (FPL) Numbers

The Federal Poverty Level (FPL) is a measure used by the U.S. government to determine eligibility for various assistance programs, including Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and premium tax credits under the ACA. FPL is based on income and family size, with higher income thresholds for larger families.


For example, in 2022, the FPL for a single individual was set at $12,880, while for a family of four, it was $26,500. Individuals and families with incomes between 100% and 400% of the FPL may qualify for premium tax credits to help offset the cost of purchasing insurance through the marketplace. Those with incomes below 138% of the FPL (in states that expanded Medicaid) may be eligible for Medicaid coverage. One common misconception is that if you make more than 400% of the FPL, then you are not eligible for tax credits or subsidies with your Marketplace insurance. This is not always the case, it’s wise to contact your health insurance agent to make sure you are qualifying for all of the tax credits and subsidies that you qualify for.


The 2024 FPL numbers are broken down as follows:

Simplified chart of the Federal Poverty Levels for 2024

Impact on Coverage and Affordability

The relationship between FPL numbers and ACA subsidies is pivotal in making health insurance accessible to a broad swath of the population. For many individuals and families, especially those with modest incomes, the availability of subsidies can make the difference between being able to afford insurance or going uninsured.


By pegging eligibility for subsidies to FPL numbers, the ACA aims to ensure that those who need assistance the most receive it. This targeted approach helps address disparities in access to healthcare and promotes financial security for individuals and families facing economic challenges.


Stacked chart showing income and tax credit limits with the Federal Poverty Limits

Insurance Enrollment and Assistance

During the annual open enrollment period, individuals and families can explore their options on the health insurance marketplace and enroll in a plan that suits their needs and budget. Additionally, special enrollment periods are available for those experiencing qualifying life events, such as marriage, birth/adoption of a child, or loss of other health coverage.


For those who need assistance understanding their options or navigating the enrollment process, Lion’s Pride Insurance agents are available to provide guidance and support. These resources can be particularly valuable for individuals who are unfamiliar with health insurance terminology or who have complex family situations.



The Affordable Care Act has made significant strides in expanding access to health insurance coverage for millions of Americans. Central to its success are the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) numbers, which serve as a benchmark for determining eligibility for subsidies and assistance programs. By understanding how FPL numbers impact coverage and affordability, individuals and families can make informed decisions when selecting ACA health insurance plans through the marketplace. As efforts to improve and expand healthcare access continue, ensuring that those who need assistance the most receive it remains a fundamental goal of healthcare policy in the United States.


If you have questions about your income and your ACA Marketplace plan, give Lion's Pride Insurance a call at (801) 896-8377. Their agents are ready to help!

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